Peningkatan Kompetensi Mahasiswa Keperawatan Melalui Strategi Pembelajaran Berbasis Virtual Reality

Ike Puspitaningrum, Rr. Sri Endang Pujiastuti, Kurniati Puji Lestari


Nursing higher education has new challenges to prepare nursing students as agents of change in the era of the industrial revolution 4.0. Nursing students today are millennial and Z generation with unique needs and ways of learning. Students more interested in digital-based learning media. Digital-based learning methods were an urgent need to be developed to provide solutions to the learning needs of the millennial generation. The systematic review aimed to discuss the use of VR technology for educating the nursing student. The databases searched included: PubMed, Springerlink and Proquest from the years 2015 to 2019 with the keywords virtual reality, virtual simulation, simulation technology, immersive learning. The inclusion criteria included: articles published in the English language, student respondents and randomized controlled trial (RCT) research methods. The results of article was identified and reviewed by 3 researchers. Researchers approved 158 titles of article that match the keywords without duplicates and 5 articles that match the inclusion criteria. Four articles discuss the students' competencies when using virtual simulations compared with the manikin simulated. The results showed an increase in psychomotor skills, communication, and knowledge. Self-confidence increases, learning satisfaction and anxiety levels decrease. Two articles discuss the analysis of the unit cost, which states that the virtual simulation has cost utility ratio more profitable compared with the Manikin simulations. The results of the systematic review showed that virtual reality was relevant method as a learning strategy to enhance students’ competencies and have more profitable costs compared to conventional methods.


Learning methods; Millennial; Virtual Simulation; Virtual Reality

Full Text:



Berman NB, Durning SJ, Fischer MR, Huwendiek S, Triola MM. (2016). The role for virtual patients in the future of medical education. Acad Med 2016 Dec;91(9):1217-1222. [doi: 10.1097/ACM.0000000000001146] [Medline: 26959224]

Chang KK, Chung J, Wong T. (2002). Learning intravenous cannulation: a comparison of the conventional method and the CathSim Intravenous Training System. J Clin Nurs 2002 Jan;11(1):73-78. [Medline: 11845758]

Cobbett, Shelley, Snelgrove-Clarke, Erna. (2016). Virtual verses face to-face clinical simulation in relation to student knoweldge, anxiety, and self-confidence in maternal-newborn nursing: A randomized controlled trial, Nurse Education Today. doi: 10.1016/j.nedt.2016.08.00

Elif Günay I; smailog˘lu; Ayten Zaybak. (2017). Comparison of the Effectiveness of a Virtual Simulator With a Plastic Arm Model in Teaching Intravenous Catheter Insertion Skills. Wolters Kluwer Health. DOI: 10.1097/CIN.0000000000000405

Haerling, Katie A. (2018). Cost-Utility Analysis of Virtual and Mannequin-Based Simulation. Sim Healthcare 13 (1) : 34–41, [doi: 10.1097/SIH.0000000000000280]

INACSL Standards Committee. (2016). INACSL standards of best practice: simulation SM debriefing. Clin Simul Nurs 12:S21–S25

Johnson D, Flagg A, Dremsa T. (2010) Effects of using human patient simulator versus a CD-ROM on learning the management of patients exposed to chemical agents. US Army Med Dep J 2010:9-16. [Medline: 21181669]

Liaw SY, Wong L, Chan S, Ho J, Mordiffi S, Ang S, et al. (2015). Designing and evaluating an interactive multimedia web-based simulation for developing nurses' competencies in acute nursing care: randomized controlled trial. J Med Internet Res Jan 12;17(1):e5-10 [FREE Full text] [doi: 10.2196/jmir.3853] [Medline: 25583029]

Lopreiato JO. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. (2016). Healthcare Simulation Dictionary URL: simulation_dictionary/sim-dictionary.pdf

McGaghie WC, Issenberg SB, Petrusa ER, Scalese RJ. (2010). A critical review of simulation-based medical education research: 2003-2009. Med Educ 2010 Jan;44(1):50-63. [doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2923.2009.03547.x] [Medline: 20078756]

Meakim C, Boese T, Decker S, Franklin AE, Gloe D, Lioce L, et al. (2013). Standards of Best Practice: Simulation Standard I: Terminology. Clin Simul Nurs Jun;9(6):S3-S11. [doi: 10.1016/j.ecns.2013.04.001]

Padilha, José Miguel; Machado, Paulo Puga; Ribeiro, Ana; Ramos, José; Costa, Patrício. (2019). Clinical Virtual Simulation in Nursing Education: Randomized Controlled Trial. J Med Internet Res 2019;21(3):e11529. [doi:10.2196/11529]

Roh YS, Lee W, Chung H, Park Y. (2011). The effects of simulation-based resuscitation training on nurses' self-efficacy and satisfaction. Nurse Educ Today 2013 Feb;33(2):123-128. [doi: 10.1016/j.nedt.2011.11.008] [Medline: 22153054]

Tsai SL, Chai S, Hsieh L, Lin S, Taur F, Sung W, et al. (2008). The use of virtual reality computer simulation in learning Port-A cath injection. Adv Health Sci Educ Theory Pract 2008 Mar;13(1):71-87. [doi: 10.1007/s10459-006-9025-3] [Medline: 16944000]

Vaughn J, Lister M, Shaw RJ. (2016). Piloting augmented reality technology to enhance realism in clinical simulation. CIN: Comput Inform Nurs 34(9):402–405

Wilson-Sands C, Brahn P, Graves K. (2015). The effect of instructional method on cardiopulmonary resuscitation skill performance: a comparison between instructor-led basic life support and computer-based basic life support with voice-activated manikin. J Nurses Prof Dev 2015;31(5):E1-E7. [doi: 10.1097/NND.0000000000000203] [Medline: 26381346]



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2019 Ike Puspitaningrum, Rr. Sri Endang Pujiastuti, Kurniati Puji Lestari

View My Stats

Persatuan Perawat Nasional Indonesia Jawa Tengah

Central Java Nursing Center, Jl. Yos Sudarso No. 47-49 Genuk, Ungaran Barat, Semarang, Jawa Tengah, Indonesia

Tel / fax : (024) 769 13574 / (024) 769 13575 | Email:

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.