Sikap Perawat terhadap Persiapan Kematian pada Pasien Kanker Stadium Lanjut

Nurul Izah, Fitria Handayani, Henni Kusuma

Abstract


Pasien kanker stadium lanjut atau tahap terminal secara umum mengalami kesulitan
dalam penyembuhannya dan berakhir dengan kematian. Peran perawat sangat
diperlukan dalam mempersiapkan kematian yang damai bagi pasien dengan kondisi
ini dan keluarganya melalui perawatan menjelang ajal (end-of-life care). Sudut
pandang terhadap kesiapan perawat dalam merawat pasien menjelang ajal dapat
dijelaskan melalui sikapnya. Sikap perawat dapat mempengaruhi emosi dan
perilaku perawat dalam merawat pasien terminal dan keluarganya. Penelitian ini
bertujuan untuk mendeskripsikan sikap perawat terhadap persiapan kematian pada
pasien kanker stadium lanjut. Jenis penelitian ini adalah kuantitatif noneksperimental deskriptif survei. Teknik pengambilan sampel yang digunakan dalam
penelitian ini adalah total sampling dengan jumlah sampel sebanyak 145 orang
responden. Data penelitian ini dikumpulkan menggunakan kuesioner The Frommelt
Attitude Toward Care of the Dying Scale (FATCOD). Hasil penelitian ini
menunjukkan 76 orang dari 145 perawat (52,4%) memiliki sikap positif terhadap
persiapan kematian yang damai bagi pasien kanker stadium lanjut. Hasil analisis
lebih lanjut menunjukkan kedua domain sikap perawat mayoritas positif yakni
53,8% perawat memiliki sikap positif terhadap persiapan kematian bagi pasien
kanker tahap terminal dan 57,2% perawat memiliki sikap positif terhadap persiapan
keluarga menghadapi kematian pasien kanker stadium lanjut. Intervensi
keperawatan bagi pasien kanker stadium lanjut menjelang ajal dan keluarga perlu
ditingkatkan. Sangat penting untuk perawat berkomunikasi dengan pasien dan
keluarga mereka dalam membahas tentang masalah akhir kehidupan untuk
meningkatkan kualitas hidupnya dan mempersiapkan kematian yang damai serta
berkualitas.

Patients with advanced cancer are generally difficult to be healed and end up in
death. Nurses' roles are needed in preparing the patient's death through end-of-life
care. The nurses' viewpoint of readiness in caring for a dying patient can be
explained through their attitudes. Nurses' attitudes will affect the nurses' emotions
and actions while conducting end-of-life care for dying patients and their families.
This study aims to determine the nurses' attitudes toward death preparation in
advanced cancer patients at RSUP Dr. Kariadi Semarang. The type of this research
is descriptive quantitative non-experimental. The sampling technique used was total
sampling with a sample of 145 respondents. Data was collected by using The
Frommelt Attitude Toward Care of the Dying Scale (FATCOD) questionnaire. The
results showed 76 of 145 nurses (52.4%) had positive attitudes toward death
preparation. The result of the analysis of two domains showed 53.8% of nurses had
positive attitudes toward death preparation in advanced cancer patients and also
57.2% of nurses had positive attitudes toward death preparation in families of
advanced cancer patients. Nurse interventions are still needed to improve
communication with patients and their families in discussing about end-of-life
issues for improving the quality of life and good death. 

 


Keywords


kanker tahap terminal, perawatan menjelang ajal, sikap perawat

Full Text:

PDF

References


A’la, M. Z. (2016). The frommelt attitudes toward care of the dying care form b

(FATCOD-B) versi bahasa indonesia: pengukuran validitas pada mahasiswa

keperawatan menggunakan analisis faktor. NurseLine Journal, 1(1), 73–82.

A’la, M. Z., Setioputro, B., & Kurniawan, D. E. (2018). Nursing student’s attitudes

towards caring for dying patients. Nurse Media Journal of Nursing, 8(1), 25–

https://doi.org/10.14710/nmjn.v8i1.17270.

Agustinus, S., & Chan, S. W. C. (2013). Factors affecting the attitudes of nurses

towards palliative care in the acute and long term care setting : a systematic

review. JBI, 11 (1), 1–69. https://doi.org/10.11124/jbisrir-2013-604.

Atika, D.D., Fitriyah., & Indriani. (2008). Penanganan masalah sosial dan

psikologis pasien kanker stadium lanjut dalam perawatan paliatif. Journal Of

Cancer, 1, 30–34. https://doi.org/10.33371/ijoc.v2i1.36.

Azwar, S. (2011). Sikap manusia, teori, dan pengukurannya. Yogyakarta: Pustaka

Pelajar.

Departemen Kesehatan, RI. (2007). Keputusan Menteri Kesehatan RI Nomor 812

Tahun 2007 tentang kebijakan perawatan paliatif. Jakarta: Departemen

Kesehatan RI.

Departemen Kesehatan Republik Indonesia. (2013). Kesehatan dasar. Jakarta.

Donovan, H., & Browne, M. (2013). Introduction quality standards for end-of-life

care in hospitals. Ireland: Hospice Friendly Hospitals.

Fitri, E. Y., Natosba, J., & Andhini, D. (2017). Gambaran pengetahuan, sikap dan

tindakan perawatan paliatif perawat. Seminar dan Workshop Nasional

Keperawatan “Implikasi Perawatan Paliatif Pada Bidang Kesehatan”

Dalam, 3(1), 218–222.

Friedman, Howard, & Scustack, M. (2012). Kepribadian teori klasik dan riset

modern. Jakarta: Erlangga.

Gibson, J. L., Ivancevich, J. M., & Donnelly, J. H. (2010). Organisasi : perilaku,

struktur, proses. Jakarta: Binarupa Aksara.

Grubb, C., & Arthur, A. (2016). Student nurses ’ experience of and attitudes

towards care of the dying : A cross-sectional study. Palliative Madicine, 30(1), 83–88. https://doi.org/10.1177/0269216315616762.

Hasheesh, M. O. A., AboZeid, S. A.-S., El-Said, S. G., & Alhujaili, A. D. (2013).

Nurses’ characteristics and their attitudes toward death and caring for dying

patients in a public hospital in Jordan. Health Science Journal, 7(4), 384–394.

Indonesia Ministry of Health (Depkes RI). (2016). INFODATIN: Breast Cancer

Situation Report.

Kassa, H., Murugan, R., Zewdu, F., Hailu, M., & Woldeyohannes, D. (2014).

Assessment of knowledge, attitude and practice and associated factors towards

palliative care among nurses working in selected hospitals , Addis Ababa,

Ethiopia. BMC Palliative Care, 13(6), 1–11. https://doi.org/10.1186/1472-

X-13-6.

Kementrian Kesehatan Republik Indonesia. (2015). Pusat data dan informasi :

situasi penyakit kanker. Kementerian Kesehatan RI.

Kementrian Kesehatan Republik Indonesia. (2018). Riset kesehatan dasar 2018.

Kementrian Kesehatan Republik Indonesia.

Khader, K. A., Jarrah, S. S., & Alasad, J. (2010). Influence of nurses’ characteristics

and education on their attitudes towards death and dying : a review of

literature. International Journal of Nursing and Midwifery, 2(1), 1–9.

Retrieved from http://www.academicjournals.org/ijnm.

Kiran, Y., Sri, U., & Dewi, P. (2017). Pengetahuan dan sikap perawat dalam

memenuhi kebutuhan psikologis dan spiritual klien terminal. Jurnal

Pendidikan Keperawatan Indonesia, 3(2), 182–189.

https://doi.org/10.17509/jpki.v3i2.9425.

Kondo, M., & Nagata, H. (2015). Nurses’ involvement in patients’ dying and death :

scale development and validation. Journal of Death and Dying, 70(3), 278–

https://doi.org/10.1177/0030222815568959.

Kübler-Ross, E. (2009). On death and dying: what the dying have to teach doctors,

nurses, clergy, and their own families. The 40th Anniversary Edition. London:

Routledge Taylor & Francis Group.

Lancaster, R. J., Kautzmann, C., Micheal, J. C. J., Chandrasekaran, L.,

Jambunathan, J., & Chapin, T. M. (2017). Attitudes of nurses towards care of

the dying patient in India. International Journal of Palliative Nursing, 23(11),

–566. https://doi.org/10.12968/ijpn.2017.23.11.558.

Lange, M., Thom, B., & Kline, N. E. (2008). Assessing nurses’ attitudes toward

death and caring for dying patients in a comprehensive cancer center.

Oncology Nursing Forum, 35(6), 955–960.

https://doi.org/10.1188/08.ONF.955-959.

Mak, Y.W., Chung, V., Chiang, L., & Chui, W.T. (2013). Experiences and

perceptions of nurses caring for dying patients and families in the acute

medical admission setting. International Journal of Palliative Nursing, 19(9),

–432. https://doi.org/10.12968/ijpn.2013.19.9.423.

Miyashita, M., Kawakami, S., Kato, D., Yamashita, H., Igaki, H., Nakano, K., …

Nakagawa, K. (2015). The importance of good death components among

cancer patients , the general population , oncologists , and oncology nurses in

Japan : patients prefer “fighting against cancer.” Support Care Cancer, 23,

–110. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00520-014-2323-z.

National Institute for Clinical Excellent. (2004). Improving supportive and

palliative care for adults with cancer. London: National Institute for Clinical

Excellent.

Perry, A. G., & Potter, P. A. (2010). Fundamental of nursing: concept, process, and

practice. (7th ed.). Jakarta: EGC.

Sudore, R. L., Casarett, D., Smith, D., Richardson, D. M., & Ersek, M. (2014).

Family involvement at the end-of-life and receipt of quality care. Journal of

Pain and Symptom Management, 48(6), 1108–1116.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpainsymman.2014.04.001.

Tayeb, M. A., Al-Zamel, E., Fareed, M. M., & Abouellail, H. A. (2010). A “good

death”: perspectives of muslim patients and health care providers. Annals of

Saudi Medicine, 30(3), 215–221. https://doi.org/10.4103/0256-4947.62836.

The International Agency for Research on Cancer. (2018). Latest global cancer

data. Retrieved from https://gco.iarc.fr/today/data/factsheets/cancers/39-Allcancers-fact-sheet.pdf.

The National Council for Palliative Care. (2006). End of life care strategy. London.

Utami, Y. W. (2009). Hubungan antara pengetahuan dengan sikap perawat dalam

pemenuhan kebutuhan spiritual pasien di RSUD Sukoharjo. Berita Ilmu

Keperawatan, 2(2), 69–74.

Vergo, M. T., Whyman, J., Li, Z., Kestel, J., James, S. L., Rector, C., & Salsman,

J. M. (2016). Assessing preparatory grief in advanced cancer patients as an

independent predictor of distress in an american population. Journal Of

Palliative Medicine, 20(1), 1–5. https://doi.org/10.1089/jpm.2016.0136.

Wahyuni, D., Huda, N., & Utami, G. T. (2015). Studi fenomenologi: pengalaman

pasien kanker stadium lanjut yang menjalani kemoterapi. JOM, 2(2), 1041–

Zheng, R., Guo, Q., Dong, F., & Owens, R. G. (2015). Chinese oncology nurses’

experience on caring for dying patients who are on their final days : A

qualitative study. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 52(1), 288–296.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2014.09.009.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.32584/jikmb.v3i1.471

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


View My Stats

Persatuan Perawat Nasional Indonesia Jawa Tengah

Central Java Nursing Center, Jl. Yos Sudarso No. 47-49 Genuk, Ungaran Barat, Semarang, Jawa Tengah, Indonesia

Tel / fax : (024) 769 13574 / (024) 769 13575 | Email: jurkep.kmb@gmail.com

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.