Perkembangan Konsep dan Alat Ukur Harapan dalam Peningkatan Kualitas Hidup Pasien Penyakit Ginjal Tahap Akhir (PGTA): Analytic Review

Nining Puji Astuti, Untung Sujianto, Henni Kusuma

Abstract


Pemaparan konsep harapan sebagai ilmu pengetahuan telah dikembangkan sejak dahulu, namun pelaksanaan pengkajian dan intervensi peningkatan harapan pada praktik klinik keperawatan masih sangat minim dilakukan. Perlu pemahaman mengenai konsep dan pengembangan alat ukur harapan pada pasien Penyakit Ginjal Tahap Akhir (PGTA) demi meningkatkan kualitas hidup PGTA. Tujuan analytic review ini untuk mengidentifikasi konsep harapan berdasarkan definisi dan instrumen yang dapat digunakan untuk mengukur harapan PGTA, serta mengidentifikasi faktor yang mempengaruhi harapan PGTA. Metode pencarian melalui database Pubmed, Biomedical Journal, dan Google Scholar dengan kata kunci hope, end stage renal disease, chronic kidney diseases, dan quality of life. Kriteria inklusi pencarian dalam pembuatan analytic review ini yaitu artikel dalam Bahasa Inggris, full text, dipublikasikan tahun 2000-2019 dan menggunakan harapan sebagai tema utama dalam pembahasan. Sejumlah 9 artikel jurnal digunakan dalam pembahasan studi ini. Harapan didefinisikan sebagai kekuatan dalam diri individu yang membantu pasien keluar dari zona sakitnya dan meningkatkan derajat kesehatannya. Alat ukur yang dapat dipakai antara lain Herth Hope Index, The Trait Hope Scale, Adult Hope Scale, Miller Hope Scale, Basic Hope Inventory. Level harapan PGTA dipengaruhi oleh banyak faktor baik dari internal ataupun eksternal yang muncul dari lingkungan. Harapan dapat dilihat dari banyak perspektif namun fokus utama harapan adalah tujuan akan masa depan. Konsep harapan merupakan konsep ilmiah yang dapat dijelaskan secara ilmiah dan dapat diukur.


Keywords


penyakit ginjal kronik; harapan; kualitas hidup;

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References


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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.32584/jikmb.v2i2.271

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